CONCEPT OF MONGOLIA’S FOREIGN POLICY
The Cold War which dominated international relations since the end of World War II has come to an end, the mutually opposing bipolar world structure has collapsed and a process of forming a new international order is gaining momentum.
In line with trends of advancing human society, in particular with requirements of economic and technological progress, the nations of the world are drawing closer together, and conditions for enhancing their relationship are taking shape.
The disintegration of the world socialist system and the Soviet Union has dramatically changed the external situation of Mongolia which used to be aligned with them. The major changes taking place in Mongolia’s two neighbouring countries have a direct impact on its external environment.
The restructuring and reforming of the country’s political, social and economic systems provide it with favorable conditions for conducting a foreign policy based on realism and according priority to its national interests.
Based on these external and internal factors, the concept of Mongolia’s foreign policy is defined as follows.
I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
1. Independent and sovereign Mongolia, in terms of its state structure, is a unitary State upholding rights, freedoms and free economy; in political and geographical respects, it is a developing country in Asia, landlocked between two great powers. Mongolia’s foreign policy shall be based on its national interests, as defined in its Constitution; the country’s specific external and internal situation constitutes the basis for determining its foreign policy objectives, principles and priorities.
2.Mongolia’s foreign policy objectives reside in ensuring its independence and sovereignty by following the trends of human society’s advancement, maintaining friendly relations with all countries, strengthening its position in the international community and forming with influential countries in the region and in the world a network of relationships based on the interdependence of political, economic and other interests.
3.Mongolia shall pursue an open and non-aligned policy. While following a policy of creating realistic interest of the developed countries in Mongolia, it will seek to avoid becoming overly reliant or dependent on any particular country.
4.In formulating Mongolia’s foreign policy and determining its priority directions and objectives, flexible approach shall be applied, paying close attention to the development of international relations and to the regional and world political situations.
5.The priority of Mongolia’s foreign policy shall be safeguarding of its security and vital national interests by political and diplomatic means, and creating a favorable external environment for its economic, scientific and technological development.
6.Considerations of foreign relations shall be in political, economic, scientific, technological, cultural and humanitarian fields of foreign policy.
II. MONGOLIA`S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE POLITICAL FIELD
7. Mongolia’s foreign policy in the political field is an important instrument for ensuring and strengthening its security. Thus its results will be measured first and foremost by how the country’s security and independence interests are met, and to what extent its international position has been strengthened and its prestige enhanced.
8. In developing its relations with other countries, Mongolia shall be guided by universally recognized principles and norms of international law as defined in the Charter of the United Nations, including mutual respect for each other’s sovereignty, territorial integrity and unviolability of frontiers, right to self-determination, non-interference in internal affairs, non-use of force, settlement of disputes by peaceful means, respect for human rights and freedoms, and equal and mutually beneficial cooperation.
9. In its foreign policy Mongolia shall uphold peace, strive to avoid confrontation with other countries and pursue a multi-base policy. While always championing its national interests, it will at the same time respect the legitimate interests of other countries and its partners. Mongolia will not interfere in the disputes between its two neighboring countries unless the disputes affect Mongolia’s national interests. It shall pursue a policy of refraining from joining any military alliance or grouping, allowing the use of its territory or air space against any other country, and the stationing of foreign troops or weapons, including nuclear or any other type of mass destruction weapons in its territory.
10. Mongolia shall seek to guarantee its interests in the international arena through bilateral and multilateral treaties and agreements. Mongolia shall respect and observe international law, and fulfill in good faith its obligations under international treaties.
11.As a member of the world community Mongolia shall strive to make active contribution to the common cause of settling pressing regional and international issues. In doing so, it shall be guided primarily by its national interests, values and fundamental principles.
12.In implementing its foreign policy, Mongolia shall be guided by the following:
a) Maintaining friendly relations with the Russian Federation, People’s Republic of China shall be a priority directions of Mongolia’s foreign policy activity. It shall not adopt the line of either country but shall maintain in principle a balanced relationship with both of them and shall promote all-round neighbourly cooperation. In doing so, the traditional relations as well as the specific nature of our economic cooperation will these two countries will be taken into account.
b) The second direction of Mongolia’s foreign policy activity shall be developing friendly relations with highly developed countries of the West and East such as the United States of America, Japan and the Federal Republic of Germany. At the same time it will also pursue a policy aimed at promoting friendly relations with such countries as India, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Singapore, Turkey, Denmark, the Netherlands, Finland, Austria. Sweden, Switzerland and at creating and bringing to an appropriate level their economic and other interests in Mongolia.
c) The third direction of Mongolia’s foreign policy activity shall be strengthening its position in Asia and securing a constructive participation in the political and economic integration process in the region. Within the framework of this objective, greater attention shall be given to Asia and the Pacific region, in particular to North-East and Central Asia. Mongolia shall take an active part in the process of initiating dialogues and negotiations on the issues of strengthening regional security and creating a collective security mechanism. It will strive to become a member of the Asia, Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC). Prerequisites for participating in regional integration shall be created primarily through expanding and promoting bilateral relations with the countries of the region.
d) The fourth direction of Mongolia’s foreign policy, activity shall be promoting cooperation with the United Nations Organization and its specialized agencies, and with international financial and economic organizations, including the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank.
c)The fifth direction of Mongolia’s foreign policy activity will be developing friendly relations with countries of the former socialist community, as well as the newly independent states. When developing relations with these countries, a flexible approach will be adopted, reinforcing the positive legacy of our past relations while at the same time taking into account the potential of promoting relations in conformity with the new circumstances. Particular attention will be given to promoting relations with Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic in Eastern Europe as well as with Kazakhstan, the Ukraine, Belarus, Kyrgizstan and Uzbekistan.
f)The sixth direction of Mongolia’s foreign policy activity shall be developing friendly relations with developing countries and cooperating with them, as much as possible, in the solution of common objectives. Beyond the framework of bilateral relations with these countries, this task will be realised mainly through cooperation within the framework of international organizations and movements, such as the United Nations, the Group of 77 and the Non-Aligned Movement.
13. The placement of Mongolia’s plenipotentiary (diplomatic) representatives abroad shall be carried out with due regard to directions of foreign political relations so as to ensure conditions for their implementation.
14. Assignment of highly qualified and competent personnel from the economic, scientific and technological spheres to Mongolia’s diplomatic missions abroad shall be deemed a matter of principle.
III. ECONOMIC FOREIGN POLICY
15. The fundamental objective of Mongolia’s policy concerning foreign economic relations lies in the optimal use of external factors to adequate solutions to long-term and current economic goals in the light of the concept of sustainable development and in eventually securing a proper place for its economy in regional economic integration.
16. In developing economic relations and cooperation with foreign countries, Mongolia, while safeguarding against any adverse impact on it economic security and against becoming dependent on any given country, shall pursue a policy designed to ensure conditions leading to equality, mutual benefit and faithful fulfillment of obligations, freedom political and other pressures, based on the principles and norms of international economic relations.
17. In the implementation of projects connected with establishing economic, customs and trade special zones, joint ventures or enterprises with full foreign investment or with granting concessions, their political and economic consequences shall be thoroughly examined to ensure that they do not adversely affect the country` s economic security and that they will bring economic gains.
18. In selecting partners in the implementation of projects of crucial importance to the national interests, political interests shall have a significant role to play.
19. External debt issues shall be settled without detriment to national economic security, and loans will be accepted on the basis of a thorough assessment of guarantees of their repayment and effective utilization.
20. In developing foreign economic relations. Mongolia shall adhere to the following main guidelines:
a) Foreign economic activities should be focused on enhancing the country’s potential, increasing export resources, developing economic infrastructure and producing import substituting goods;
b) Mindful of the need to modernize the economy, presently dominated by raw materials production, and to develop basic sectors conducive to building a rational structure, measures will be taken to achieve the most effective level of processing minerals as well as raw materials of animal and plant extraction and to produce that are competitive on the world market;
c) Pursuing the policy of modernizing existing industries by re-equipping them with advanced technology and techniques, and developing export-oriented industries such as food, light, mining and chemical industries as well as biotechnology and new products on the basis of raw materials available in the country;
d) In enhancing its export potential, Mongolia shall promote cooperation with foreign countries in the fields of processing mineral resources, including gold, copper, molybdenum, uranium, and of manufacturing finished products thereof, as well as in the area of full processing agricultural raw materials and producing goods which are capable of competing on world market;
e) Expanding markets for Mongolia export commodities;
f) Developing fuel, energy, transportation, communication and other necessary components of economic infrastructure and creating favorable conditions for securing access to sea ports and transit to them;
g) Integrating in the international transportation, information and communication networks, particularly those in North-East Asia;
h) Pursuing a policy of securing foreign assistance and technology for developing small and medium industries oriented towards the production of import substituting goods;
i) taking advantage of Mongolia’s natural, historical and cultural heritage, international tourism will be developed by enhancing its material basis and raising its service level to world standards;
j) Securing most favored nation treatment in foreign trade and retaining for a certain period the status which enables Mongolia to get soft loans and grants.
IV. FOREIGN POLICY IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
21. The main objective of foreign relations in the scientific and technological fields will lie in making full use of external factors to build and enhance a modern national scientific, technical and technological potential capable of serving as a driving force for the effective development of the national economy and industry and able to be competitive at regional, continental and global levels.
22.Mongolia shall apply the principle of benefiting from world scientific and technological achievements to enrich the pool of national endowment and intellectual capacity which are congruous with the national human and natural resources, the level of social theory and thought as well as with the unique culture of its pastoral livestock breeding economy.
23.In implementing its scientific and technological foreign policy, Mongolia shall adhere to the following basic guidelines:
a) Introduction advanced technology and methods into production and services. In doing so, priority will be given to the selective introduction of research-intensive technology. Greater attention will be paid to introducing technologies related to processing mineral resources, raw materials of animal and plant extraction, and use of renewable energy sources;
b) Gearing the national scientific and technological information system to the international information network;
c) Developing bilateral and multilateral cooperation in the field of intellectual property as well as science and technology.
V. CULTURAL AND HUMANITARIAN FOREIGN POLICY
24. The main objective of the cultural and humanitarian foreign relations reside in protecting the culture and the way of life of Mongols, endowing their unique cultural heritage and enriching it with the achievements of world culture, restoring national historical and cultural assets, recovering cultural and art relics from abroad, in using cultural cooperation for the purpose of educating and training skilled personnel capable of working in new conditions, introducing Mongolia to foreign countries, expanding the ranks of well-wishers and supporters of Mongolia, encouraging Mongolian studies in other nations and promoting mutual understanding and trust.
25. In promoting cultural and humanitarian cooperation, Mongolia will practice both Government and people’s diplomacy, and apply the principle of respect for human rights, freedoms, equality and mutual benefit.
26. In developing humanitarian relations with foreign countries, Mongolia shall adhere to the following guidelines:
a) safeguarding the rights, freedoms, legitimate interests and the security of Mongolian citizens residing or traveling abroad through the promotion of broad cooperation with foreign countries in the legal sphere;
b) enhancing contacts and cooperation with Mongolian nationals residing abroad and mutual support in preserving and developing the Mongolian language, culture, and traditions as well as securing their contributions to Mongolia’s progress and growth;
3c) taking preventive measures to thwart the influence of reactionary movements and groups prejudicial to the national security of Mongolia and the unity of its people;
d) giving priority to training in developed countries of Mongolian students, managerial personnel and specialists in the field of market economy, politics, law, management and marketing as well as in the leading areas of the country’s scientific and technological fields. In doing so, Mongolia shall seek to benefit from specialized funds of international organizations and developed countries, scholarships of public and private universities and institutes for the purpose of training students, upgrading specialists, arranging degree studies, training highly skilled workers as well as for using the services of foreign lecturers and scholars of excellence;
e) studying the advanced methods and technology of training and management of foreign countries in general education and vocational training with a view to applying them flexibly in a way suiting the specific conditions of the country;
f) in restoring and protecting Mongolia’s historical, cultural and natural heritage and assets and in sharing them with other nations, Mongolia shall cooperate with Asian countries which have similar historical, religious and cultural legacies as well as with other interested countries, UNESCO and other related international organizations;
g) promoting active relations with international organizations, foundations and non-governmental institutions in the field of education, culture, arts, sports and information, acceding to relevant treaties, establishing and promoting direct ties between similar organizations, encouraging the exchange of scholars, teachers, creative workers, representatives of the media and sportsmen, taking part in international cultural, art and sport events, and organizing such measures in the country;
h) promoting cooperation designed to help bring about favorable external conditions for ensuring the country’s ecological security, maintaining its ecological balance and protecting nature.